Statement on Sex and Gender
Many people use sex and gender interchangeably, but in truth, they’re distinct concepts. Sex is a classification based on biological characteristics, including DNA and anatomy. Gender refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviors, expressions, and identities of girls, women, boys, men, and gender diverse people. Yet just as gender isn’t binary, our biology isn’t binary. It, too, exists on a spectrum. In fact, many people’s bodies possess a combination of physical characteristics typically thought of as “male” or “female.” It’s been estimated that babies with intersex traits account for up to 2% of live births (Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:151–166, 2000). Sex is often included as a binary and categorical variable in the publically available dataframes included in this book. This may change as new data sets become available over time.
The Pipe Operator %>%
The Pipe Operator %>% What it is In R, %>% is called the "pipe" operator. It takes the output of one statement and uses it as the input for the following statement. Another way of saying this is that it "pipes" or "chains" together a string of ...
The as.numeric() function will convert a factorial value into a numeric value. For instance, if you need to change a factor such as `Sex` into numeric values, the as.numeric() function will assign each group a number and convert it from being coded ...
The predict() function will generate the prediction(s) from a model. Example 1: # Calculate the predictions from the Sex model of Thumb # Use the lm() function to specify the model predict(lm(Thumb ~ Sex, data = Fingers)) # Alt: Save the model into ...
The gf_facet_grid() function will create separate plots for each group of a categorical variable. It can be chained onto plots such as gf_histogram(), gf_jitter(), and gf_bar(). Example 1: # Density histogram of Thumb faceted by Sex gf_dhistogram( ~ ...
The cohensD() function calculates the Cohen's d measure of effect size. Example: cohensD(Thumb ~ Sex , data = Fingers) Example output: